JJ Calibrations

Providing World-Class Calibration

Definitions J - Q

Calibration Definitions

Jitter: Small, rapid variations in a waveform due to mechanical disturbances.

Joule: A unit of electrical energy equal to the work done when a current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second.

Kelvin Temperature Scale: The absolute temperature scale in the CGS system. Kelvin is equal to degrees Celsius plus 273.15.

Kilogram: One thousand grams.

Kinetic Energy:  Energy due to motion.

Level: Perpendicular to the force of gravity.

LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System): A system that manages operations of a testing laboratory.

Linearity: The degree to which performance or response approaches the condition of being linear.

Linear Meter: The deflection of the pointer is proportional to the quantity measured.

Load Cell: A type of force transducer designed primarily for the measurement of load or weight.

Loading Effects : An error of measurement resulting in a change of the system under test caused by insertion of the test instrument.

Lumen: Unit of luminous flux.

Magnetic Deflection: Method of bending electrons in a CRT by means of the magnetic field produced by coils placed outside the tube.

Management Review: Formal evaluation by top management of the status and adequacy of the quality system in relation to quality policy and objectives.

Mass: Measure of the quantity of matter that a body contains.

Mass Density: Mass per unit volume.

Mass Number: The number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus of an element.

Mass Unit: A unit of measurement for mass.

Mcleod Gage: A primary instrument for the measurement of pressure in a vacuum system.

Megohm: 1,000,000 ohms of resistivity.

Measurand: A particular quantity subject to measurement.

Measurement: The act or process of measuring.

Measurement Standards: A material measure, measuring instrument, reference material, or system intended to define, conserve, or reproduce a unit or one or more values of a quantity in order to transmit them to other measuring instruments by comparison.

Measurement Uncertainty: The estimated amount by which the measured quantity may depart from the true value.

Measuring Equipment: All of the measuring instruments, measurement standards, reference materials, auxiliary apparatus, and instructions that are necessary to carry out a measurement. This includes measuring equipment used in the course of that used in calibration.

Meter: The basic unit of length adopted under the Systeme International d’Unites (approximately 1.094 yards)

Metrology: The science of measurement.

MEV: The abbreviation for a million electron volts.

MHO: A unit of conductance.

Micro: Equivalence of one millionth.

Micron: A metric unit of length equal to one millionth of a meter.

Milli: Equivalence of one thousandth.

Minute: 1/60th of a degree.

MKS System: The meter-kilogram-second system.

Model for Quality Assurance: Standardized or selected set of quality system requirements situation.

Moment Arm : The length of a torque wrench from the center of pivot to the point where force is applied.

Momentum: The product of the mass of a body and its velocity.

National Institute of Science and Technology: An independent agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce charged with the improvement and maintenance of standards.

Neon: An inert element which is a gas at room temperature.

Neutron: An elementary particle with 0 charge and mass about equal to a proton.

Neutrino: An elementary particle with zero charge and zero mass.

Newton: A unit of force equal to the force that imparts an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec to a mass of 1 kilogram.

Newtonian Fluid: A fluid whose absolute viscosity is the same for all values of shear stress.

Nominal Value: This is normally the value indicated by the manufacture.

Nonconformity: Nonfulfillment of a specified requirement.

Nonlinear: Pertaining to a response which is not directly or inversely proportional to a given variable.

Normally Closed Switch(NC): A switch in which the contracts are closed without any external force acting upon it.

Normally Open Switch(NO): A switch in which contracts are open when no external forces act upon the switch.

Null Method: Any method of measurement in which the reading is taken at zero.

Objective Evidence: Information that can be proved true, based on facts obtained through observation, measurement, tests or other means.

OHM : A unit of electrical resistance equal to the resistance between two points on a conductor when a potential difference of one volt between them produces a current of one ampere.

OHMmeter: A instrument for measuring resistance.

Optical Pyrometer: An instrument designed to estimate the temperature of glowing surfaces.

Optical Tooling: The geometric method of optically establishing a precise line and/or reference plane.

Organization: Company, corporation, firm, enterprise, or institution or part, thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and administration.

Organizational Structure: Responsibilities, authorities, and relationships, arranges in a pattern, through which an organization performs its functions.

Out of Phase: Having waveforms that are of the same frequency but not passing through corresponding values at the same instants.

Out of Round: The high and low spots in a true circle.

Overshoot: The initial transient response to an unidirectional change in input which exceeds the steady stat response.

Packing Fraction: The difference between the atomic weight in mass units and the mass number of an element divided by the mass number and multiplied by 10,000.

Parallax: The apparent displacement of an object as seen from two different points that is not on a line with the object.

Parallel Transmission: Transmission of data bits over different lines, as opposed to serial transmission.

Peak to Peak Amplitude:  The amplitude of an alternating quantity measured from positive to negative peak.

pH: A indication of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.

PID Control: Control in which the control signal is a linear combination of the error signal, its integral, and its derivative.

Pointer: The needle-shaped rod that moves over the scale of a meter or dial.

Potential: The amount of voltage or change between a point and a zero reference point.

Potential Difference: The difference in potential between any two points in a circuit.

Potential Energy: Energy due to position.

Pontentiometer: A measuring instrument for measuring direct current electromotive forces.

Potentiometric Measurement: Comparing the unknown voltage with a known voltage from a calibrated potentiometer.

Precision: The closeness of agreement between randomly selected individual measurements or test results.

Pressure: Force exerted per unit area.

Preventive Action: Action taken to eliminate the causes of a potential nonconformity defect or other undesirable situation in order to prevent recurrence.

Primary Standard: A unit established by some authority or developed through practical application of a formula.

Probability: A measure of how likely it is that some event will occur.

Proportional Control: Control in which the amount of corrective action is proportional to the amount of error.

Psychrometer: A instrument for measuring relative humidity.

Pyrometer: A device for measuring high temperatures.

Qualification Process: Process of demonstrating whether an entity is capable of fulfilling specified requirements.

Qualified: Status given to an entity when capability of fulfilling specified requirements has been demonstrated.

Quality: The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy given needs.

Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic action necessary to provide adequate confidence that adequate or service will satisfy given needs.

Quality Audit: A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives.

Quality Audit Observation: Statement of fact during a quality audit and substantiated by objective audience.

Quality Control: The operational techniques and the activities that sustain a quality of product or service that will satisfy given needs; also, the use of such techniques and activities.

Quality Evaluation: Systematic examination of the extent to which an entity is capable of fulfilling specified requirements.

Quality Losses: Losses caused by not realizing the potential of resources in processes and activities.

Quality Management: The totality of functions involved in the determination and achievement of quality.

Quality Manual: Document stating the quality policy and describing the quality system of an organization. See Davis Calibration Quality Manual.

Quality Plan: Document setting out the specific quality practices, resources, and sequence of activities relevant to a particular product, project, or contract.

Quality Policy: Overall intentions and direction of an organization with regard to quality, as formally expressed by top management.

Quality related costs: Those costs incurred in ensuring satisfactory quality, as well as the losses incurred when satisfactory quality is not achieved.

Quality Surveillance: Continued monitoring and verification of the status of an entity and analysis of records to ensure that specification requirements are being fulfilled.

Quality System: Organizational structure procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management.